The CFA Institute Code of Ethics and Standards of Professional Conduct (Code and Standards) are fundamental to the values of CFA Institute
and essential to achieving its mission to lead the investment profession globally by setting high standards of education, integrity, and pro-
fessional excellence. High ethical standards are critical to maintaining the public’s trust in financial markets and in the investment profes-
sion. Since their creation in the 1960s, the Code and Standards have promoted the integrity of CFA Institute members and served as a
model for measuring the ethics of investment professionals globally, regardless of job function, cultural differences, or local laws and regula-
tions. All CFA Institute members (including holders of the Chartered Financial Analyst® (CFA®) designation) and CFA candidates must abide
by the Code and Standards and are encouraged to notify their employer of this responsibility. Violations may result in disciplinary sanctions
by CFA Institute. Sanctions can include revocation of membership, candidacy in the CFA Program, and the right to use the CFA designation.
Members and Candidates must
understand and comply with all applicable laws, rules, and regula-
tions (including the CFA Institute Code of Ethics and Standards of
Professional Conduct) of any government, regulatory organiza-
tion, licensing agency, or professional association governing their
professional activities. In the event of conflict, Members and
Candidates must comply with the more strict law, rule, or regula-
tion. Members and Candidates must not knowingly participate or
assist in and must dissociate from any violation of such laws,
rules, or regulations.
Members and Candidates
must use reasonable care and judgment to achieve and maintain
independence and objectivity in their professional activities.
Members and Candidates must not offer, solicit, or accept any
gift, benefit, compensation, or consideration that reasonably
could be expected to compromise their own or another’s
independence and objectivity.
Members and Candidates must not know-
ingly make any misrepresentations relating to investment analy-
sis, recommendations, actions, or other professional activities.
Members and Candidates must not engage in
any professional conduct involving dishonesty, fraud, or deceit or
commit any act that reflects adversely on their professional
reputation, integrity, or competence.
Members and Candidates
who possess material nonpublic information that could affect the
value of an investment must not act or cause others to act on the
Members and Candidates must not
engage in practices that distort prices or artificially inflate trading
volume with the intent to mislead market participants.
Members and Candidates have a
duty of loyalty to their clients and must act with reasonable care
and exercise prudent judgment. Members and Candidates must
act for the benefit of their clients and place their clients’ interests
before their employer’s or their own interests. In relationships
with clients, Members and Candidates must determine applicable
fiduciary duty and must comply with such duty to persons and
interests to whom it is owed.
Members and Candidates must deal fairly and
objectively with all clients when providing investment analysis,
making investment recommendations, taking investment action,
or engaging in other professional activities.
When communicating investment
performance information, Members or Candidates must make
reasonable efforts to ensure that it is fair, accurate, and complete.
In matters related to their employment, Members
and Candidates must act for the benefit of their employer and
not deprive their employer of the advantage of their skills and
abilities, divulge confidential information, or otherwise cause
harm to their employer.
Candidates must not accept gifts, benefits, compensation, or con-
sideration that competes with, or might reasonably be expected
to create a conflict of interest with, their employer’s interest
unless they obtain written consent from all parties involved.
Members and Candidates
must make reasonable efforts to detect and prevent violations of
applicable laws, rules, regulations, and the Code and Standards by
anyone subject to their supervision or authority.
Members and Candidates must develop
and maintain appropriate records to support their investment
analysis, recommendations, actions, and other investment-related
communications with clients and prospective clients.
Members and Candidates must make
full and fair disclosure of all matters that could reasonably be
expected to impair their independence and objectivity or interfere
with respective duties to their clients, prospective clients, and
employer. Members and Candidates must ensure that such disclo-
sures are prominent, are delivered in plain language, and commu-
nicate the relevant information effectively.
Investment transactions for clients
and employers must have priority over investment transactions in
which a Member or Candidate is the beneficial owner.
Members and Candidates must disclose to their
employer, clients, and prospective clients, as appropriate, any com-
pensation, consideration, or benefit received from, or paid to,
others for the recommendation of products or services.
Members and Candidates must not engage in any conduct that
compromises the reputation or integrity of CFA Institute or the
CFA designation or the integrity, validity, or security of the CFA
When referring to CFA Institute, CFA Institute member-
ship, the CFA designation, or candidacy in the CFA Program,
Members and Candidates must not misrepresent or exaggerate
the meaning or implications of membership in CFA Institute,
holding the CFA designation, or candidacy in the CFA Program.